Canada

Region: Europe and North America
 

Classification of economies by geographic region is based on that of the United Nations Statistics Division.

High Income
 

Based on the income levels set out by the World Economic Forum (WEF) in its Global Competitiveness Report. However, the groupings are slightly different due to the numbers of economies covered. For GEM, the low income group contains both those classified as low income and lower middle by WEF, and the middle income group has those that WEF groups as upper middle. High income is the same for both GEM and WEF.

Population: 36.7 million (2018)
 

Population data is from the World Bank, except Palestinian Territories World Population Review and Taiwan Worldometers

GDP Growth: 1.8% (2018)
 

GDP growth data is from the World Economic Outlook Database, except Palestinian Territories Worldometers

GDP Per Capita: $46,261 (2018)
 

GDP per capita data is from the World Economic Outlook Database, except Palestinian Territories Worldometers

Canada Reports

Name
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2023
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2023-11-26

  • The Report find that the Canadian population has generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship in 2022, which are associated with intentions to start a business. However, there are a number of areas for improvement. The drop in the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities, capabilities, and intentions to start a business ends a progressive increase in these three indicators since 2019. Canada’s total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA) decreased between 2021 and 2022. Canada was one of five GEM economies in which the level of TEA fell at the start of the pandemic in 2019-20, recovered somewhat to 2021, and then fell again in 2022. This may suggest that trading conditions in Canada in 2022 were actually worse than in the early stages of the pandemic. Canada retains a high ratio of TEA to established business ownership (EBO) activity once again in 2022, which reflects in part the country’s challenge in transitioning start-ups into established business.
  • URL: https://www2.gemconsortium.org/report/51362
GEM Canada Report
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2023
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2023-11-26

  • The GEM B.C. Report finds generally favorable results on the state of B.C. entrepreneurship in 2021. Evidence from GEM data and government data sources suggests that the B.C. economy made a strong recovery from the effects of the coronavirus pandemic. Over half of B.C. adults agreed they have the skills and experience to start their own business. While GEM data shows that British Columbians appear much more optimistic about starting a business in 2021 compared to 2020, over half of B.C. adults seeing good opportunities would be deterred by fear of failure. Entrepreneurs outside Vancouver are less deterred by the fear of failure but perceive fewer opportunities compared to Vancouver entrepreneurs.
  • URL: https://www2.gemconsortium.org/report/51363
GEM British Columbia Report 2022,2023
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2023
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2024-01-16

  • Alberta’s total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA) and established business (EB) rates are the highest amongst comparators in 2022. While this suggests that Alberta’s entrepreneurial activity is transitioning into established businesses, both the proportion of Alberta adults starting or running a new business and the proportion running an established business has fluctuated during the pandemic cycle (2019-22), with Alberta retaining consistently higher levels than comparators.
  • URL: https://www2.gemconsortium.org/report/51367
GEM Alberta rpeort
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2023
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2023-06-14

  • This is the second GEM report for Atlantic Canada - the four most eastern provinces. Entrepreneurship is seen as a good career choice in Atlantic Canada. More people living in Atlantic Canada know an entrepreneur than in the rest of Canada., and fear of failure is slightly higher than in the rest of Canada. TEA is lower in Atlantic Canada than the rest of Canada but has increased significantly since the last report in 2019. The motivation of entrepreneurs is consistent with the rest of Canada.
  • URL: https://www2.gemconsortium.org/report/51178
GEM Canada - Atlantic Canada Report 2022/2023
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2022
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2022-10-31

  • The Canadian population has positive attitudes towards entrepreneurial skills, which are associated with intentions to start a business. Canadians appear much more optimistic about starting a business in 2021 compared to 2020. Canada’s ‘perceived opportunities’ score has increased to its highest level since 2016, showing that 7 out of 10 Canadians see good opportunities to start a business in 2021. Canada’s ‘perceived capabilities’ score has also risen to its highest level since 2016, but remains lower than the USA. Canada has the highest level of ‘intention to start a business’ amongst G7 economies. This result may reflect the significant increase in ‘perceived opportunities,’ increase in ‘perceived capabilities’ and lower ‘fear of failure’ rate. However, Canada’s ‘fear of failure’ is still the highest in the G7, and 3rd highest of 47 GEM economies in 2021. Canada maintains its leading position amongst innovation-led economies for its total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA), but is middle-ranked for its established business activity (EB). Canada’s TEA level increased in 2021, placing it 8th among 47 GEM economies. This is the highest TEA level for Canada since it began participating in GEM. Canada’s EB level increased slightly from 2020, placing it lower than USA and 16th overall.
  • URL: https://www2.gemconsortium.org/report/51066
GEM Canada 2021 report
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